Python numpy.trace() 使用实例

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Example 1

def trace(a, offset=0, axis1=0, axis2=1, dtype=None, out=None):
    """Returns the sum along the diagonals of an array.

    It computes the sum along the diagonals at ``axis1`` and ``axis2``.

    Args:
        a (cupy.ndarray): Array to take trace.
        offset (int): Index of diagonals. Zero indicates the main diagonal, a
            positive value an upper diagonal, and a negative value a lower
            diagonal.
        axis1 (int): The first axis along which the trace is taken.
        axis2 (int): The second axis along which the trace is taken.
        dtype: Data type specifier of the output.
        out (cupy.ndarray): Output array.

    Returns:
        cupy.ndarray: The trace of ``a`` along axes ``(axis1, axis2)``.

    .. seealso:: :func:`numpy.trace`

    """
    # TODO(okuta): check type
    return a.trace(offset, axis1, axis2, dtype, out) 

Example 2

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 3

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.0
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2., numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 4

def trace(mpa, axes=(0, 1)):
    """Compute the trace of the given MPA.

    If you specify axes (see partialtrace() for details), you must
    ensure that the result has no physical legs anywhere.

    :param mpa: MParray
    :param axes: Axes for trace, ``(axis1, axis2)`` or ``(axes1, axes2, ...)``
        with ``axesN=(axisN_1, axisN_2)`` or ``axesN=None``.
        (default: ``(0, 1)``)
    :returns: A single scalar of type ``mpa.dtype``

    """
    out = partialtrace(mpa, axes)
    out = out.to_array()
    assert out.size == 1, 'trace must return a single scalar'
    return out[None][0] 

Example 5

def test_sandwich(nr_sites, local_dim, rank, rgen, dtype):
    mps = factory.random_mpa(nr_sites, local_dim, rank,
                             randstate=rgen, dtype=dtype, normalized=True)
    mps2 = factory.random_mpa(nr_sites, local_dim, rank,
                              randstate=rgen, dtype=dtype, normalized=True)
    mpo = factory.random_mpa(nr_sites, [local_dim] * 2, rank,
                             randstate=rgen, dtype=dtype)
    mpo.canonicalize()
    mpo /= mp.trace(mpo)

    vec = mps.to_array().ravel()
    op = mpo.to_array_global().reshape([local_dim**nr_sites] * 2)
    res_arr = np.vdot(vec, np.dot(op, vec))
    res_mpo = mp.inner(mps, mp.dot(mpo, mps))
    res_sandwich = mp.sandwich(mpo, mps)
    assert_almost_equal(res_mpo, res_arr)
    assert_almost_equal(res_sandwich, res_arr)

    vec2 = mps2.to_array().ravel()
    res_arr = np.vdot(vec2, np.dot(op, vec))
    res_mpo = mp.inner(mps2, mp.dot(mpo, mps))
    res_sandwich = mp.sandwich(mpo, mps, mps2)
    assert_almost_equal(res_mpo, res_arr)
    assert_almost_equal(res_sandwich, res_arr) 

Example 6

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 7

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 8

def test_dipolar_tensor(self):
        # initial stupid test...
        ###### TODO : do a reasonable test!!!  ######
        p  = np.array([[0.,0.,0.]])
        fc = np.array([[0.,0.,1.]],dtype=np.complex)
        k  = np.array([0.,0.,0.0])
        
        phi= np.array([0.,])
        
        mu = np.array([0.5,0.5,0.5])
        
        sc = np.array([10,10,10],dtype=np.int32)
        latpar = np.diag([2.,2.,2.])
        
        r = 10.
        res = lfcext.DipolarTensor(p,mu,sc,latpar,r)
        np.testing.assert_array_almost_equal(res, np.zeros([3,3]))
        
        mu = np.array([0.25,0.25,0.25])
        res = lfcext.DipolarTensor(p,mu,sc,latpar,r)
        np.testing.assert_array_almost_equal(np.trace(res), np.zeros([3]))
        np.testing.assert_array_almost_equal(res, res.copy().T) 

Example 9

def get_neg_log_post(Phi, sigma_J_list, ROI_list, G, MMT, q, Sigma_E,  GL,
                     nu, V, prior_on = False):
    eps = 1E-13
    p = Phi.shape[0]
    n_ROI = len(sigma_J_list)
    Qu = Phi.dot(Phi.T)
    G_Sigma_G = np.zeros(MMT.shape)
    for i in range(n_ROI):
        G_Sigma_G += sigma_J_list[i]**2 * np.dot(G[:,ROI_list[i]], G[:,ROI_list[i]].T)
    cov = Sigma_E + G_Sigma_G + GL.dot(Qu).dot(GL.T) 
    inv_cov = np.linalg.inv(cov)    
    eigs = np.real(np.linalg.eigvals(cov)) + eps
    log_det_cov = np.sum(np.log(eigs))  
    result = q*log_det_cov + np.trace(MMT.dot(inv_cov))
    if prior_on:
        inv_Q = np.linalg.inv(Qu)
        #det_Q = np.linalg.det(Qu)
        log_det_Q = np.sum(np.log(np.diag(Phi)**2))
        result =  result + np.float(nu+p+1)*log_det_Q+ np.trace(V.dot(inv_Q))
    return result

#==============================================================================
# update both Qu and Sigma_J, gradient of Qu and Sigma J 

Example 10

def get_neg_log_post(Phi, sigma_J_list, ROI_list, G, MMT, q, Sigma_E,  GL,
                     nu, V, prior_on = False):
    eps = 1E-13
    p = Phi.shape[0]
    n_ROI = len(sigma_J_list)
    Qu = Phi.dot(Phi.T)
    G_Sigma_G = np.zeros(MMT.shape)
    for i in range(n_ROI):
        G_Sigma_G += sigma_J_list[i]**2 * np.dot(G[:,ROI_list[i]], G[:,ROI_list[i]].T)
    cov = Sigma_E + G_Sigma_G + GL.dot(Qu).dot(GL.T) 
    inv_cov = np.linalg.inv(cov)    
    eigs = np.real(np.linalg.eigvals(cov)) + eps
    log_det_cov = np.sum(np.log(eigs))  
    result = q*log_det_cov + np.trace(MMT.dot(inv_cov))
    if prior_on:
        inv_Q = np.linalg.inv(Qu)
        #det_Q = np.linalg.det(Qu)
        log_det_Q = np.sum(np.log(np.diag(Phi)**2))
        result =  result + np.float(nu+p+1)*log_det_Q+ np.trace(V.dot(inv_Q))
    return result

#==============================================================================
# update both Qu and Sigma_J, gradient of Qu and Sigma J 

Example 11

def calc_mean_var_loss(epochsInds,loss_train):
    #Loss train is in dimension # epochs X #batchs
    num_of_epochs = loss_train.shape[0]
    #Average over the batchs
    loss_train_mean = np.mean(loss_train,1)
    #The diff divided by the sampled indexes
    d_mean_loss_to_dt = np.sqrt(np.abs(np.diff(loss_train_mean) / np.diff(epochsInds[:])))
    var_loss = []
    #Go over the epochs
    for epoch_index in range(num_of_epochs):
        #The loss for the specpic epoch
        current_loss = loss_train[epoch_index, :]
        #The derivative between the batchs
        current_loss_dt = np.diff(current_loss)
        #The mean of his derivative
        average_loss = np.mean(current_loss_dt)
        current_loss_minus_mean = current_loss_dt- average_loss
        #The covarince between the batchs
        cov_mat = np.dot(current_loss_minus_mean[:, None], current_loss_minus_mean[None, :])
        # The trace of the cov matrix
        trac_cov = np.trace(cov_mat)
        var_loss.append(trac_cov)
    return np.array(var_loss), d_mean_loss_to_dt 

Example 12

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 13

def process_fidelity(self, reference_unitary):
        """
        Compute the quantum process fidelity of the estimated state with respect to a unitary
        process. For non-sparse reference_unitary, this implementation this will be expensive in
        higher dimensions.

        :param (qutip.Qobj|matrix-like) reference_unitary: A unitary operator that induces a process
         as ``rho -> other*rho*other.dag()``, can also be a superoperator or Pauli-transfer matrix.
        :return: The process fidelity, a real number between 0 and 1.
        :rtype: float
        """
        if isinstance(reference_unitary, qt.Qobj):
            if not reference_unitary.issuper or reference_unitary.superrep != "super":
                sother = qt.to_super(reference_unitary)
            else:
                sother = reference_unitary
            tm_other = self.pauli_basis.transfer_matrix(sother)
        else:
            tm_other = csr_matrix(reference_unitary)
        dimension = self.pauli_basis.ops[0].shape[0]
        return np.trace(tm_other.T * self.r_est).real / dimension ** 2 

Example 14

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.0
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2., numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 15

def one_time_from_two_time(two_time_corr):
    """
    This will provide the one-time correlation data from two-time
    correlation data.
    Parameters
    ----------
    two_time_corr : array
        matrix of two time correlation
        shape (number of labels(ROI's), number of frames, number of frames)
    Returns
    -------
    one_time_corr : array
        matrix of one time correlation
        shape (number of labels(ROI's), number of frames)
    """

    one_time_corr = np.zeros((two_time_corr.shape[0], two_time_corr.shape[2]))
    for g in two_time_corr:
        for j in range(two_time_corr.shape[2]):
            one_time_corr[:, j] = np.trace(g, offset=j)/two_time_corr.shape[2]
    return one_time_corr 

Example 16

def one_time_from_two_time(two_time_corr):
    """
    This will provide the one-time correlation data from two-time
    correlation data.
    Parameters
    ----------
    two_time_corr : array
        matrix of two time correlation
        shape (number of labels(ROI's), number of frames, number of frames)
    Returns
    -------
    one_time_corr : array
        matrix of one time correlation
        shape (number of labels(ROI's), number of frames)
    """

    one_time_corr = np.zeros((two_time_corr.shape[0], two_time_corr.shape[2]))
    for g in two_time_corr:
        for j in range(two_time_corr.shape[2]):
            one_time_corr[:, j] = np.trace(g, offset=j)/two_time_corr.shape[2]
    return one_time_corr 

Example 17

def __trace_middle_dims(sys, dims, reverse=True):
    """
    Get system dimensions for __trace_middle.

    Args:
        j (int): system to trace over.
        dims(list[int]): dimensions of all subsystems.
        reverse (bool): if true system-0 is right-most system tensor product.

    Returns:
        Tuple (dim1, dims2, dims3)
    """
    dpre = dims[:sys]
    dpost = dims[sys + 1:]
    if reverse:
        dpre, dpost = (dpost, dpre)
    dim1 = int(np.prod(dpre))
    dim2 = int(dims[sys])
    dim3 = int(np.prod(dpost))
    return (dim1, dim2, dim3) 

Example 18

def quadratic_loss(covariance, precision):
    """Computes ...

    Parameters
    ----------
    covariance : 2D ndarray (n_features, n_features)
        Maximum Likelihood Estimator of covariance

    precision : 2D ndarray (n_features, n_features)
        The precision matrix of the model to be tested

    Returns
    -------
    Quadratic loss
    """
    assert covariance.shape == precision.shape
    dim, _ = precision.shape
    return np.trace((np.dot(covariance, precision) - np.eye(dim))**2) 

Example 19

def multivariate_prior_KL(meanA, covA, meanB, covB):
    # KL[ qA | qB ] = E_{qA} \log [qA / qB] where qA and aB are
    # K dimensional multivariate normal distributions.
    # Analytically tractable and equal to...
    # 0.5 * (Tr(covB^{-1} covA) + (meanB - meanA)^T covB^{-1} (meanB - meanA)
    #        - K + log(det(covB)) - log (det(covA)))
    K = covA.shape[0]
    traceTerm = 0.5 * np.trace(np.linalg.solve(covB, covA))
    delta = meanB - meanA
    mahalanobisTerm = 0.5 * np.dot(delta.T, np.linalg.solve(covB, delta))
    constantTerm = -0.5 * K
    priorLogDeterminantTerm = 0.5*np.linalg.slogdet(covB)[1]
    variationalLogDeterminantTerm = -0.5 * np.linalg.slogdet(covA)[1]
    return (traceTerm +
            mahalanobisTerm +
            constantTerm +
            priorLogDeterminantTerm +
            variationalLogDeterminantTerm) 

Example 20

def contract_internal(self, label1, label2, index1=0, index2=0):
        """By default will contract the first index with label1 with the 
        first index with label2. index1 and index2 can be specified to contract
        indices that are not the first with the specified label."""

        label1_indices = [i for i, x in enumerate(self.labels) if x == label1]
        label2_indices = [i for i, x in enumerate(self.labels) if x == label2]

        index_to_contract1 = label1_indices[index1]
        index_to_contract2 = label2_indices[index2]

        self.data = np.trace(self.data, axis1=index_to_contract1, axis2=
        index_to_contract2)

        # The following removes the contracted indices from the list of labels
        self.labels = [label for j, label in enumerate(self.labels)
                       if j not in [index_to_contract1, index_to_contract2]]

    # aliases for contract_internal 

Example 21

def estimate_cov(self, samples, mean):
        """
        Estimate the empirical covariance of the weight vectors, possibly
        with regularization. 
        """
        d = mean.shape[0]
        # Accumulate statistics
        Sigma = np.zeros((d, d))
        for t in range(len(samples)):
            zm = samples[t] - mean
            Sigma = Sigma + zm.dot(zm.T)
        # Normalize factor of estimate
        if self._norm_style == 'ML':
            norm = 1.0/(len(samples)-1)
        elif self._norm_style == 'Trace':
            norm = 1.0/np.trace(Sigma)
        else:
            raise ValueError('Norm style {} not known'.format(self._norm_style))
        Sigma = norm*Sigma
        # Add diagonal loading term
        self.diag_eps = 0.1*np.mean(np.abs(np.linalg.eig(Sigma)[0])) # TODO
        return Sigma + self.diag_eps*self._id 

Example 22

def compute_gradient_totalcverr_wrt_lambda(self,matrix_results,lambda_val,sigmasq_z):
        # 0: K_tst_tr; 1: K_tr_tr; 2: D_tst_tr; 3: D_tr_tr
        num_sample_cv = self.num_samples
        ttl_num_folds = np.shape(matrix_results)[1]
        gradient_cverr_per_fold = np.zeros(ttl_num_folds)
        for jj in range(ttl_num_folds):
            uu = np.shape(matrix_results[3][jj])[0] # number of training samples
            M_tst_tr = exp(matrix_results[2][jj]*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1))
            M_tr_tr = exp(matrix_results[3][jj]*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1))
            lower_ZZ = cholesky(M_tr_tr+ lambda_val*eye(uu), lower=True)
            ZZ = cho_solve((lower_ZZ,True),eye(uu))
            first_term = matrix_results[0][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(ZZ.dot(M_tst_tr.T)))
            second_term = M_tst_tr.dot(ZZ.dot(ZZ.dot(
                            matrix_results[1][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tst_tr.T)))))
            gradient_cverr_per_fold[jj] = trace(first_term-second_term)
        return 2*sum(gradient_cverr_per_fold)/float(num_sample_cv)
    
    
    # lambda = exp(eta) 

Example 23

def compute_gradient_totalcverr_wrt_sqsigma(self,matrix_results,lambda_val,sigmasq_z):
        # 0: K_tst_tr; 1: K_tr_tr; 2: D_tst_tr; 3: D_tr_tr
        num_sample_cv = self.num_samples
        ttl_num_folds = np.shape(matrix_results)[1]
        gradient_cverr_per_fold = np.zeros(ttl_num_folds)
        for jj in range(ttl_num_folds):
            uu = np.shape(matrix_results[3][jj])[0]
            log_M_tr_tst = matrix_results[2][jj].T*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1)
            M_tr_tst = exp(log_M_tr_tst)
            log_M_tr_tr = matrix_results[3][jj]*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1)
            M_tr_tr = exp(log_M_tr_tr)
            lower_ZZ = cholesky(M_tr_tr+ lambda_val*eye(uu), lower=True)
            ZZ = cho_solve((lower_ZZ,True),eye(uu))
            term_1 = matrix_results[0][jj].dot(ZZ.dot((M_tr_tr*sigmasq_z**(-1)*(-log_M_tr_tr)).dot(ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst))))
            term_2 = -matrix_results[0][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst*(-log_M_tr_tst*sigmasq_z**(-1))))
            term_3 = (sigmasq_z**(-1)*(M_tr_tst.T)*(-log_M_tr_tst.T)).dot(ZZ.dot(matrix_results[1][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst))))
            term_4 = -(M_tr_tst.T).dot(ZZ.dot((M_tr_tr*sigmasq_z**(-1)*(-log_M_tr_tr)).dot(ZZ.dot(matrix_results[1][jj].dot(
                                                                                    ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst))))))
            term_5 = -(M_tr_tst.T).dot(ZZ.dot(matrix_results[1][jj].dot(ZZ.dot((M_tr_tr*sigmasq_z**(-1)*(-log_M_tr_tr)).dot(
                                                                                    ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst))))))
            term_6 = (M_tr_tst.T).dot(ZZ.dot(matrix_results[1][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tr_tst*sigmasq_z**(-1)*(-log_M_tr_tst)))))
            gradient_cverr_per_fold[jj] = trace(2*term_1 + 2*term_2 + term_3 + term_4 + term_5 + term_6)
        return sum(gradient_cverr_per_fold)/float(num_sample_cv) 

Example 24

def compute_totalcverr(self,matrix_results,lambda_val,sigmasq_z):
        # 0: K_tst_tr; 1: K_tr_tr; 2: K_tst_tst; 3: D_tst_tr; 4: D_tr_tr 
        num_sample_cv = self.num_samples
        ttl_num_folds = np.shape(matrix_results)[1]
        cverr_per_fold = np.zeros(ttl_num_folds)
        for jj in range(ttl_num_folds):
            uu = np.shape(matrix_results[4][jj])[0] # number of training samples 
            M_tst_tr = exp(matrix_results[3][jj]*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1))
            M_tr_tr = exp(matrix_results[4][jj]*float(-1/2)*sigmasq_z**(-1))
            lower_ZZ = cholesky(M_tr_tr+ lambda_val*eye(uu), lower=True)
            ZZ = cho_solve((lower_ZZ,True),eye(uu))
            first_term = matrix_results[2][jj]
            second_term = - matrix_results[0][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tst_tr.T))
            third_term = np.transpose(second_term)
            fourth_term = M_tst_tr.dot(ZZ.dot(
                            matrix_results[1][jj].dot(ZZ.dot(M_tst_tr.T))))
            cverr_per_fold[jj] = trace(first_term + second_term + third_term + fourth_term)
        return sum(cverr_per_fold)/float(num_sample_cv) 

Example 25

def covariance_distance_from_matrices(m1, m2, mul_factor=1):
    """
    Covariance distance between matrices m1 and m2, defined as
    d = factor * (1 - (trace(m1 * m2)) / (norm_fro(m1) + norm_fro(m2)))
    :param m1: matrix
    :param m2: matrix
    :param mul_factor: multiplicative factor for the formula, it equals to the maximal value the distance can reach
    :return: mul_factor * (1 - (np.trace(m1.dot(m2))) / (np.linalg.norm(m1) + np.linalg.norm(m2)))
    """
    if np.nan not in m1 and np.nan not in m2:
        return \
            mul_factor * (1 - (np.trace(m1.dot(m2)) / (np.linalg.norm(m1, ord='fro') * np.linalg.norm(m2, ord='fro'))))
    else:
        return np.nan


# --- global distances: (segm, segm) |-> real 

Example 26

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.0
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2., numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 27

def test_sum_bit0(self):

        n = 32
        x = np.random.random(n)
        # x = np.arange(n).astype(np.float64)

        x_gpu = drv.to_device(x)

        trace(
            x_gpu, np.int32(0), block=(
                n, 1, 1), grid=(
                1, 1, 1), shared=8 * 128)

        x2 = drv.from_device_like(x_gpu, x)

        print(x)
        print(x2)

        assert np.allclose(x2[1], np.sum(x[::2]))
        assert np.allclose(x2[0], np.sum(x[1::2])) 

Example 28

def test_sum_bit1(self):

        n = 32
        x = np.random.random(n)
        # x = np.arange(n).astype(np.float64)

        x_gpu = drv.to_device(x)

        trace(
            x_gpu, np.int32(1), block=(
                n, 1, 1), grid=(
                1, 1, 1), shared=8 * 128)

        x2 = drv.from_device_like(x_gpu, x)

        print(x)
        print(x2)

        assert np.allclose(x2[1], np.sum(x[::4]) + np.sum(x[1::4]))
        assert np.allclose(x2[0], np.sum(x[2::4]) + np.sum(x[3::4])) 

Example 29

def test_preserve_trace_ground_state(self, dm):
        dm.hadamard(2)
        assert np.allclose(dm.trace(), 1)
        dm.hadamard(4)
        assert np.allclose(dm.trace(), 1)
        dm.hadamard(0)
        assert np.allclose(dm.trace(), 1)

    # @pytest.mark.skip
    # def test_squares_to_one(self, dm_random):
        # dm = dm_random
        # a0 = dm.to_array()
        # dm.hadamard(4)
        # dm.hadamard(4)
        # # dm.hadamard(2)
        # # dm.hadamard(2)
        # # dm.hadamard(0)
        # # dm.hadamard(0)
        # a1 = dm.to_array()
        # assert np.allclose(np.triu(a0), np.triu(a1)) 

Example 30

def norm_fro_err(X, W, H, norm_X):
    """ Compute the approximation error in Frobeinus norm

    norm(X - W.dot(H.T)) is efficiently computed based on trace() expansion 
    when W and H are thin.

    Parameters
    ----------
    X : numpy.array or scipy.sparse matrix, shape (m,n)
    W : numpy.array, shape (m,k)
    H : numpy.array, shape (n,k)
    norm_X : precomputed norm of X

    Returns
    -------
    float
    """
    sum_squared = norm_X * norm_X - 2 * np.trace(H.T.dot(X.T.dot(W))) \
        + np.trace((W.T.dot(W)).dot(H.T.dot(H)))
    return math.sqrt(np.maximum(sum_squared, 0)) 

Example 31

def sdp_km(D, n_clusters):
    ones = np.ones((D.shape[0], 1))
    Z = cp.Semidef(D.shape[0])
    objective = cp.Maximize(cp.trace(D * Z))
    constraints = [Z >= 0,
                   Z * ones == ones,
                   cp.trace(Z) == n_clusters]

    prob = cp.Problem(objective, constraints)
    prob.solve(solver=cp.SCS, verbose=False)

    Q = np.asarray(Z.value)
    rs = Q.sum(axis=1)
    print('Q', Q.min(), Q.max(), '|',
          rs.min(), rs.max(), '|',
          np.trace(Q), np.trace(D.dot(Q)))
    print('Final objective', np.trace(D.dot(Q)))

    return np.asarray(Z.value) 

Example 32

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 33

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2, numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 34

def neg_log_likelihood(self, Lam, Theta, fixed, vary):
        "compute the negative log-likelihood of the GCRF"
        return -log(np.linalg.det(Lam)) + \
                np.trace(np.dot(fixed.Syy, Lam) + \
                2*np.dot(fixed.Sxy.T, Theta) + \
                np.dot(vary.Psi, Lam)) 

Example 35

def neg_log_likelihood_wrt_Lam(self, Lam, fixed, vary):
        # compute the negative log-likelihood of the GCRF when Theta is fixed
        return -log(np.linalg.det(Lam)) + \
                np.trace(np.dot(fixed.Syy, Lam) + \
                np.dot(vary.Psi, Lam)) 

Example 36

def check_descent(self, newton_lambda, alpha, fixed, vary):
        # check if we have made suffcient descent
        DLam = np.trace(np.dot(self.grad_wrt_Lam(fixed, vary), newton_lambda)) + \
               self.lamL * np.linalg.norm(self.Lam + newton_lambda, ord=1) - \
               self.lamL * np.linalg.norm(self.Lam, ord=1)

        nll_a = self.l1_neg_log_likelihood_wrt_Lam(self.Lam + alpha * newton_lambda, fixed, vary)
        nll_b = self.l1_neg_log_likelihood_wrt_Lam(self.Lam, fixed, vary) + alpha * self.slack * DLam
        return nll_a <= nll_b 

Example 37

def check_descent2(self, newton_lambda, alpha, fixed, vary):

        lhs = self.l1_neg_log_likelihood(self.Lam + alpha*newton_lambda, self.Theta, fixed, vary)

        mu = np.trace(np.dot(self.grad_wrt_Lam(fixed, vary), newton_lambda)) + \
             self.lamL*self.l1_norm_off_diag(self.Lam + newton_lambda) +\
             self.lamT*np.linalg.norm(self.Theta, ord=1)

        rhs = self.neg_log_likelihood(self.Lam, self.Theta, fixed, vary) +\
              alpha * self.slack * mu
        return lhs <= rhs 

Example 38

def updateTransform(self):
    muX = np.divide(np.sum(np.dot(self.P, self.X), axis=0), self.Np)
    muY = np.divide(np.sum(np.dot(np.transpose(self.P), self.Y), axis=0), self.Np)

    self.XX = self.X - np.tile(muX, (self.N, 1))
    YY      = self.Y - np.tile(muY, (self.M, 1))

    self.A = np.dot(np.transpose(self.XX), np.transpose(self.P))
    self.A = np.dot(self.A, YY)

    U, _, V = np.linalg.svd(self.A, full_matrices=True)
    C = np.ones((self.D, ))
    C[self.D-1] = np.linalg.det(np.dot(U, V))

    self.R = np.dot(np.dot(U, np.diag(C)), V)

    self.YPY = np.dot(np.transpose(self.P1), np.sum(np.multiply(YY, YY), axis=1))

    self.s = np.trace(np.dot(np.transpose(self.A), self.R)) / self.YPY

    self.t = np.transpose(muX) - self.s * np.dot(self.R, np.transpose(muY)) 

Example 39

def updateVariance(self):
    qprev = self.q

    trAR     = np.trace(np.dot(self.A, np.transpose(self.R)))
    xPx      = np.dot(np.transpose(self.Pt1), np.sum(np.multiply(self.XX, self.XX), axis =1))
    self.q   = (xPx - 2 * self.s * trAR + self.s * self.s * self.YPY) / (2 * self.sigma2) + self.D * self.Np/2 * np.log(self.sigma2)
    self.err = np.abs(self.q - qprev)

    self.sigma2 = (xPx - self.s * trAR) / (self.Np * self.D)

    if self.sigma2 <= 0:
      self.sigma2 = self.tolerance / 10 

Example 40

def updateVariance(self):
    qprev = self.q

    trAB     = np.trace(np.dot(self.A, np.transpose(self.B)))
    xPx      = np.dot(np.transpose(self.Pt1), np.sum(np.multiply(self.XX, self.XX), axis =1))
    trBYPYP  = np.trace(np.dot(np.dot(self.B, self.YPY), np.transpose(self.B)))
    self.q   = (xPx - 2 * trAB + trBYPYP) / (2 * self.sigma2) + self.D * self.Np/2 * np.log(self.sigma2)
    self.err = np.abs(self.q - qprev)

    self.sigma2 = (xPx - trAB) / (self.Np * self.D)

    if self.sigma2 <= 0:
      self.sigma2 = self.tolerance / 10 

Example 41

def identity_matrix():
    """Return 4x4 identity/unit matrix.

    >>> I = identity_matrix()
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.dot(I, I))
    True
    >>> numpy.sum(I), numpy.trace(I)
    (4.0, 4.0)
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float64))
    True

    """
    return numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float64) 

Example 42

def reflection_matrix(point, normal):
    """Return matrix to mirror at plane defined by point and normal vector.

    >>> v0 = numpy.random.random(4) - 0.5
    >>> v0[3] = 1.0
    >>> v1 = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R = reflection_matrix(v0, v1)
    >>> numpy.allclose(2., numpy.trace(R))
    True
    >>> numpy.allclose(v0, numpy.dot(R, v0))
    True
    >>> v2 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] += v1
    >>> v3 = v0.copy()
    >>> v2[:3] -= v1
    >>> numpy.allclose(v2, numpy.dot(R, v3))
    True

    """
    normal = unit_vector(normal[:3])
    M = numpy.identity(4)
    M[:3, :3] -= 2.0 * numpy.outer(normal, normal)
    M[:3, 3] = (2.0 * numpy.dot(point[:3], normal)) * normal
    return M 

Example 43

def rotation_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return rotation angle and axis from rotation matrix.

    >>> angle = (random.random() - 0.5) * (2*math.pi)
    >>> direc = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> point = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R0 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> angle, direc, point = rotation_from_matrix(R0)
    >>> R1 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> is_same_transform(R0, R1)
    True

    """
    R = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    R33 = R[:3, :3]
    # direction: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    l, W = numpy.linalg.eig(R33.T)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(l) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    direction = numpy.real(W[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    # point: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    l, Q = numpy.linalg.eig(R)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(l) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    point = numpy.real(Q[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    point /= point[3]
    # rotation angle depending on direction
    cosa = (numpy.trace(R33) - 1.0) / 2.0
    if abs(direction[2]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[1, 0] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[1]) / direction[2]
    elif abs(direction[1]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[0, 2] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[2]) / direction[1]
    else:
        sina = (R[2, 1] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[1]*direction[2]) / direction[0]
    angle = math.atan2(sina, cosa)
    return angle, direction, point 

Example 44

def scale_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return scaling factor, origin and direction from scaling matrix.

    >>> factor = random.random() * 10 - 5
    >>> origin = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> direct = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> S0 = scale_matrix(factor, origin)
    >>> factor, origin, direction = scale_from_matrix(S0)
    >>> S1 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direction)
    >>> is_same_transform(S0, S1)
    True
    >>> S0 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direct)
    >>> factor, origin, direction = scale_from_matrix(S0)
    >>> S1 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direction)
    >>> is_same_transform(S0, S1)
    True

    """
    M = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    M33 = M[:3, :3]
    factor = numpy.trace(M33) - 2.0
    try:
        # direction: unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue factor
        l, V = numpy.linalg.eig(M33)
        i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(l) - factor) < 1e-8)[0][0]
        direction = numpy.real(V[:, i]).squeeze()
        direction /= vector_norm(direction)
    except IndexError:
        # uniform scaling
        factor = (factor + 2.0) / 3.0
        direction = None
    # origin: any eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1
    l, V = numpy.linalg.eig(M)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(l) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    origin = numpy.real(V[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    origin /= origin[3]
    return factor, origin, direction 

Example 45

def identity_matrix():
    """Return 4x4 identity/unit matrix.

    >>> I = identity_matrix()
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.dot(I, I))
    True
    >>> numpy.sum(I), numpy.trace(I)
    (4.0, 4.0)
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.identity(4))
    True

    """
    return numpy.identity(4) 

Example 46

def rotation_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return rotation angle and axis from rotation matrix.

    >>> angle = (random.random() - 0.5) * (2*math.pi)
    >>> direc = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> point = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R0 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> angle, direc, point = rotation_from_matrix(R0)
    >>> R1 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> is_same_transform(R0, R1)
    True

    """
    R = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    R33 = R[:3, :3]
    # direction: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, W = numpy.linalg.eig(R33.T)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    direction = numpy.real(W[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    # point: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, Q = numpy.linalg.eig(R)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    point = numpy.real(Q[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    point /= point[3]
    # rotation angle depending on direction
    cosa = (numpy.trace(R33) - 1.0) / 2.0
    if abs(direction[2]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[1, 0] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[1]) / direction[2]
    elif abs(direction[1]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[0, 2] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[2]) / direction[1]
    else:
        sina = (R[2, 1] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[1]*direction[2]) / direction[0]
    angle = math.atan2(sina, cosa)
    return angle, direction, point 

Example 47

def scale_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return scaling factor, origin and direction from scaling matrix.

    >>> factor = random.random() * 10 - 5
    >>> origin = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> direct = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> S0 = scale_matrix(factor, origin)
    >>> factor, origin, direction = scale_from_matrix(S0)
    >>> S1 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direction)
    >>> is_same_transform(S0, S1)
    True
    >>> S0 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direct)
    >>> factor, origin, direction = scale_from_matrix(S0)
    >>> S1 = scale_matrix(factor, origin, direction)
    >>> is_same_transform(S0, S1)
    True

    """
    M = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    M33 = M[:3, :3]
    factor = numpy.trace(M33) - 2.0
    try:
        # direction: unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue factor
        w, V = numpy.linalg.eig(M33)
        i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - factor) < 1e-8)[0][0]
        direction = numpy.real(V[:, i]).squeeze()
        direction /= vector_norm(direction)
    except IndexError:
        # uniform scaling
        factor = (factor + 2.0) / 3.0
        direction = None
    # origin: any eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1
    w, V = numpy.linalg.eig(M)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    origin = numpy.real(V[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    origin /= origin[3]
    return factor, origin, direction 

Example 48

def rotation_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return rotation angle and axis from rotation matrix.

    >>> angle = (random.random() - 0.5) * (2*math.pi)
    >>> direc = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> point = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R0 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> angle, direc, point = rotation_from_matrix(R0)
    >>> R1 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> is_same_transform(R0, R1)
    True

    """
    R = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    R33 = R[:3, :3]
    # direction: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, W = numpy.linalg.eig(R33.T)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    direction = numpy.real(W[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    # point: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, Q = numpy.linalg.eig(R)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    point = numpy.real(Q[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    point /= point[3]
    # rotation angle depending on direction
    cosa = (numpy.trace(R33) - 1.0) / 2.0
    if abs(direction[2]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[1, 0] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[1]) / direction[2]
    elif abs(direction[1]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[0, 2] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[2]) / direction[1]
    else:
        sina = (R[2, 1] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[1]*direction[2]) / direction[0]
    angle = math.atan2(sina, cosa)
    return angle, direction, point

# Function to translate handshape coding to degrees of rotation, adduction, flexion 

Example 49

def rotation_from_matrix(matrix):
    """Return rotation angle and axis from rotation matrix.

    >>> angle = (random.random() - 0.5) * (2*math.pi)
    >>> direc = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> point = numpy.random.random(3) - 0.5
    >>> R0 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> angle, direc, point = rotation_from_matrix(R0)
    >>> R1 = rotation_matrix(angle, direc, point)
    >>> is_same_transform(R0, R1)
    True

    """
    R = numpy.array(matrix, dtype=numpy.float64, copy=False)
    R33 = R[:3, :3]
    # direction: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, W = numpy.linalg.eig(R33.T)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    direction = numpy.real(W[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    # point: unit eigenvector of R33 corresponding to eigenvalue of 1
    w, Q = numpy.linalg.eig(R)
    i = numpy.where(abs(numpy.real(w) - 1.0) < 1e-8)[0]
    if not len(i):
        raise ValueError("no unit eigenvector corresponding to eigenvalue 1")
    point = numpy.real(Q[:, i[-1]]).squeeze()
    point /= point[3]
    # rotation angle depending on direction
    cosa = (numpy.trace(R33) - 1.0) / 2.0
    if abs(direction[2]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[1, 0] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[1]) / direction[2]
    elif abs(direction[1]) > 1e-8:
        sina = (R[0, 2] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[0]*direction[2]) / direction[1]
    else:
        sina = (R[2, 1] + (cosa-1.0)*direction[1]*direction[2]) / direction[0]
    angle = math.atan2(sina, cosa)
    return angle, direction, point

# Function to translate handshape coding to degrees of rotation, adduction, flexion 

Example 50

def identity_matrix():
    """Return 4x4 identity/unit matrix.

    >>> I = identity_matrix()
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.dot(I, I))
    True
    >>> numpy.sum(I), numpy.trace(I)
    (4.0, 4.0)
    >>> numpy.allclose(I, numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float64))
    True

    """
    return numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float64) 
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