Python numpy.cosh() 使用实例

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Example 1

def quadrf(ev, y):
    L = ev[1]      # length
    k = ev[4]      # quadrupole strength
    if k == 0:
        R = drift(ev, y)
    else:
        wrzlk = sqrt(abs(k))
        Omega = wrzlk*L
        coshom = cosh(Omega)
        sinhom = sinh(Omega)
        cosom = cos(Omega)
        sinom = sin(Omega)
        R = array([
        [cosom,        sinom/wrzlk, 0.,           0.,           0., 0.],
        [-wrzlk*sinom, cosom,       0.,           0.,           0., 0.],
        [0.,            0.,         coshom,       sinhom/wrzlk, 0., 0.],
        [0.,            0.,         wrzlk*sinhom, coshom,       0., 0.],
        [0.,            0.,         0.,           0.,           1., L/(y**2)],
        [0.,            0.,         0.,           0.,           0., 1.]
        ])
    return R 

Example 2

def quadaf(ev, y):
    L = ev[1]      # length
    k = ev[4]      # quadrupole strength
    if k == 0:
        R = drift(ev, y)
    else:
        wrzlk = sqrt(abs(k))
        Omega = wrzlk*L
        coshom = cosh(Omega)
        sinhom = sinh(Omega)
        cosom = cos(Omega)
        sinom = sin(Omega)
        R = array([
        [coshom,       sinhom/wrzlk, 0.,           0.,          0., 0],
        [wrzlk*sinhom, coshom,       0.,           0.,          0., 0],
        [0.,           0.,           cosom,        sinom/wrzlk, 0., 0],
        [0.,           0.,           -wrzlk*sinom, cosom,       0., 0],
        [0.,           0.,           0.,           0.,          1., L/(y**2)],
        [0.,           0.,           0.,           0.,          0., 1.]
        ])
    return R 

Example 3

def _setup(self):
        self.xlimits[:, 0] = -1.
        self.xlimits[:, 1] =  1.

        a = self.options['width']
        if self.options['func'] == 'cos':
            self.func = lambda v: np.cos(a * np.pi * v)
            self.dfunc = lambda v: -a * np.pi * np.sin(a * np.pi * v)
        elif self.options['func'] == 'exp':
            self.func = lambda v: np.exp(a * v)
            self.dfunc = lambda v: a * np.exp(a * v)
        elif self.options['func'] == 'tanh':
            self.func = lambda v: np.tanh(a * v)
            self.dfunc = lambda v: a / np.cosh(a * v) ** 2
        elif self.options['func'] == 'gaussian':
            self.func = lambda v: np.exp(-2. * a * v ** 2)
            self.dfunc = lambda v: -4. * a * v * np.exp(-2. * a * v ** 2) 

Example 4

def potentialFunction(self, x):
        naturalPotential = self.De * (1 - np.exp(-self.a * (x - self.center)))**2 + self.energyOffset
        imaginaryPotential = 0
        try:
            imaginaryPotentialZeros = np.zeros(x.shape)
        except:
            if x > self.startOfAbsorbingPotential:
                imaginaryPotential = -1.0j *self.strength * np.cosh( (np.real(x) - self.mySpace.xMax)**2 / (self.mySpace.Dx*30)**2)**(-2)
            else:
                imaginaryPotential = 0
            return naturalPotential + imaginaryPotential

        if self.absorbingPotential:
            imaginaryPotential = -1.0j *self.strength * np.cosh( (np.real(x) - self.mySpace.xMax)**2 / (self.mySpace.Dx*30)**2)**(-2)
            imaginaryPotential = np.where(x > self.startOfAbsorbingPotential, imaginaryPotential, imaginaryPotentialZeros)
        return naturalPotential + imaginaryPotential 

Example 5

def _transform_dense(self, X):
        non_zero = (X != 0.0)
        X_nz = X[non_zero]

        X_step = np.zeros_like(X)
        X_step[non_zero] = np.sqrt(X_nz * self.sample_interval_)

        X_new = [X_step]

        log_step_nz = self.sample_interval_ * np.log(X_nz)
        step_nz = 2 * X_nz * self.sample_interval_

        for j in range(1, self.sample_steps):
            factor_nz = np.sqrt(step_nz /
                                np.cosh(np.pi * j * self.sample_interval_))

            X_step = np.zeros_like(X)
            X_step[non_zero] = factor_nz * np.cos(j * log_step_nz)
            X_new.append(X_step)

            X_step = np.zeros_like(X)
            X_step[non_zero] = factor_nz * np.sin(j * log_step_nz)
            X_new.append(X_step)

        return np.hstack(X_new) 

Example 6

def Sign(**kwargs):
	'''
	Algorithm 1, Pg 12 of BLISS paper
	o/p:
	z,c 
	'''
	msg, A, S, m, n, sd, q, M, kappa = kwargs['msg'], kwargs['A'], kwargs['S'], kwargs['m'], kwargs['n'], kwargs['sd'], kwargs['q'], kwargs['M'], kwargs['kappa']
	m_bar = m + n
	D = DiscreteGaussianDistributionLatticeSampler(ZZ**m_bar, sd)
	count = 0
	while(True):
		y = np.array(D()) # m' x 1 
 		reduced_Ay = util.vector_to_Zq(np.matmul(A, y), 2*q)
		c = hash_iterative(np.array_str(reduced_Ay) + msg, n, kappa) # still not the hash but this is test run		
		b = util.crypt_secure_randint(0, 1)
		Sc = np.matmul(S,c)
		z = y + ((-1)**b) * Sc
		try:			
			exp_term = exp(float(Sc.dot(Sc)) / (2*sd**2))
			cosh_term = np.cosh(float(z.dot(Sc)) / (sd**2))
			val = exp_term / (cosh_term * M)				
		except OverflowError:
			print "OF"			
			continue			
		if(random.random() < min(val, 1.0)):
			break
		if(count > 10): # beyond 4 rejection sampling iterations are not expected in general 
			raise ValueError("The number of rejection sampling iterations are more than expected")
		count += 1								
	return z, c 

Example 7

def gen_samples(self, num_samples):
        """Generate sample for ML near the snake."""

        points = []  # the sample points
        labels = []  # the labels
        whichs = []  # the corresponding node for the sample
        deri_g = []  # the partial derivative to g
        deri_T = []  # the partial derivative to T
        counter = 0
        assert num_samples % self.length == 0
        for i, (v, n) in enumerate(zip(self.vertices, self.normals())):
            for d in np.linspace(-1, 1, num_samples / self.length):
                # geometry
                r = 2 * self.widths[i] * d
                s = v + r * n
                l = array([0.5 * (1. - np.tanh(d)),
                           0.5 * (1. + np.tanh(d))])
                points.append(s)
                labels.append(l)
                whichs.append(i)
                # cal derivatives
                cosh_d = np.cosh(d)
                deri_g.append(1 / (4 * self.widths[i] * cosh_d * cosh_d))
                deri_T.append(d / (2 * self.widths[i] * cosh_d * cosh_d))
                counter += 1
                if counter == num_samples:
                    return array(points), array(labels), array(whichs), array(deri_g), array(deri_T) 

Example 8

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 

Example 9

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        # Tests new ufuncs on MaskedArrays.
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor',
                  ]:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(numpy.ma.core, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            ur = uf(*args)
            mr = mf(*args)
            assert_equal(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f)
            assert_mask_equal(ur.mask, mr.mask, err_msg=f) 

Example 10

def test_testUfuncs1(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf, s) = self.d
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cos(x), cos(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sin(x), sin(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tan(x), tan(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm)))
        with np.errstate(divide='ignore', invalid='ignore'):
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.exp(x), exp(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, ym))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((x, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y, x)), concatenate((x, ym, x)))) 

Example 11

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        f_invalid_ignore = [
            'sqrt', 'arctanh', 'arcsin', 'arccos',
            'arccosh', 'arctanh', 'log', 'log10', 'divide',
            'true_divide', 'floor_divide', 'remainder', 'fmod']
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor']:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(np.ma, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            with np.errstate():
                if f in f_invalid_ignore:
                    np.seterr(invalid='ignore')
                if f in ['arctanh', 'log', 'log10']:
                    np.seterr(divide='ignore')
                ur = uf(*args)
                mr = mf(*args)
            self.assertTrue(eq(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f))
            self.assertTrue(eqmask(ur.mask, mr.mask)) 

Example 12

def cosh(x: Number = 0.0) -> Number:
    return np.cosh(x) 

Example 13

def tanh(x, y):
    if y == 0:
        return (2 / (1 + np.exp(-2*x))) - 1
    else:
        return 1 / ((np.cosh(x))**2) 

Example 14

def poisson_from_positiveK(mean):
    # solve x/(1 - exp(-x)) == mean
    def f(x):
        return x/(1. - np.exp(-x))
    def f1(x):
        return (np.expm1(x) - x)/(2.*np.cosh(x) - 2.)

    x = solve(mean, f, f1, mean, n=10)
    return x 

Example 15

def poisson_from_positiveK(mean):
    # solve x/(1 - exp(-x)) == mean
    def f(x):
        return x/(1. - np.exp(-x))
    def f1(x):
        return (np.expm1(x) - x)/(2.*np.cosh(x) - 2.)

    x = solve_newton(mean, f, f1, mean, n=10)
    return x 

Example 16

def cosh(v):
    return v.__class__(numpy.cosh(v)) 

Example 17

def cir_int_rt_chf(u, t, k, theta, sigma, r0):
    r = np.sqrt(k ** 2 - 1j * u * 2 * sigma ** 2)
    cosh_fun = np.cosh(r * t / 2)
    sinh_fun = np.sinh(r * t / 2)
    coth_fun = cosh_fun / sinh_fun
    a_t_v = np.exp(t * theta * (k ** 2) / (sigma ** 2)) / (cosh_fun + (k / r) * sinh_fun) ** (
        2 * k * theta / (sigma ** 2))
    b_t_v = 2 * 1j * u / (k + r * coth_fun)
    return a_t_v * np.exp(b_t_v * r0) 

Example 18

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 

Example 19

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        # Tests new ufuncs on MaskedArrays.
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor',
                  ]:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(numpy.ma.core, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            ur = uf(*args)
            mr = mf(*args)
            assert_equal(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f)
            assert_mask_equal(ur.mask, mr.mask, err_msg=f) 

Example 20

def test_testUfuncs1(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf, s) = self.d
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cos(x), cos(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sin(x), sin(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tan(x), tan(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm)))
        with np.errstate(divide='ignore', invalid='ignore'):
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.exp(x), exp(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, ym))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((x, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y, x)), concatenate((x, ym, x)))) 

Example 21

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        f_invalid_ignore = [
            'sqrt', 'arctanh', 'arcsin', 'arccos',
            'arccosh', 'arctanh', 'log', 'log10', 'divide',
            'true_divide', 'floor_divide', 'remainder', 'fmod']
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor']:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(np.ma, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            with np.errstate():
                if f in f_invalid_ignore:
                    np.seterr(invalid='ignore')
                if f in ['arctanh', 'log', 'log10']:
                    np.seterr(divide='ignore')
                ur = uf(*args)
                mr = mf(*args)
            self.assertTrue(eq(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f))
            self.assertTrue(eqmask(ur.mask, mr.mask)) 

Example 22

def dfdx(self, x):
        sech_aR = 1.0 / np.cosh(self.a * (x - self.R0))
        return self.V0*self.a*sech_aR*sech_aR 

Example 23

def d2fdx2(self, x):
        sech_aR = 1.0 / np.cosh(self.a * (x - self.R0))
        tanh_aR = np.tanh(self.a * (x-self.R0))
        return -2.0 * self.V0 * self.a * self.a * sech_aR * sech_aR * tanh_aR 

Example 24

def __init__(self, generator: Generator=Autoincrement()):
        super().__init__(numpy.cosh, generator) 

Example 25

def test_cosh():
    fun = lambda x : 3.0 * np.cosh(x)
    d_fun = grad(fun)
    check_grads(fun, npr.randn())
    check_grads(d_fun, npr.randn()) 

Example 26

def integrate_fip(p, v, z, dt, omega2):
    """
    Integrate the equation of motion of the Floating-base Inverted Pendulum.

    Parameters
    ----------
    p : array, shape=(3,)
        Initial position.
    v : array, shape=(3,)
        Initial velocity.
    z : array, shape=(3,)
        ZMP location throughout the integration.
    dt : scalar
        Integration step.
    omega2 : scalar
        FIP constant.

    Returns
    -------
    p_next : array, shape=(3,)
        Position at the end of the integration step.
    v_next : array, shape=(3,)
        Velocity at the end of the integration step.

    Note
    ----
    The Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode (LIPM) is a special case of the FIP, so
    this function also applies to COP-based controllers.
    """
    omega = sqrt(omega2)
    a = omega2 * (p - z) + gravity
    p_next = p + v / omega * sinh(omega * dt) \
        + a / omega2 * (cosh(omega * dt) - 1.)
    v_next = v * cosh(omega * dt) + a / omega * sinh(omega * dt)
    return p_next, v_next 

Example 27

def evaluate(self, x):
        return numpy.cosh(x) 

Example 28

def cosh(x):
    return Apply(Cosh(), x) 

Example 29

def __init__(self, kp, kd, kv, kw, N, u_limit=[100, 100], nn_limit=[100, 100]):
		"""
		kp:  Proportional feedback gains.
		kd:  Derivative feedback gains.
		kv:  Input-side learning gain (scalar).
		kw:  Output-side learning gain (scalar).
		N:   Number of neurons.
		u_limit: Limit on total output effort.
		nn_limit: Limit on NN component feedforward effort.

		The user must actively set self.learn = True to
		have the NN start learning.

		"""
		self.nstates = 2 * len(kp)
		self.ncontrols = len(kp)
		self.nsigs = N

		self.sig = lambda x: np.concatenate(([1], np.tanh(x)))
		self.sigp = lambda x: np.tile(1/(np.cosh(x)**2), (self.nsigs+1, 1))

		self.set_gains(kp, kd, kv, kw)
		self.u_limit = np.array(u_limit, dtype=np.float32)
		self.nn_limit = np.array(nn_limit, dtype=np.float32)

		self.V = np.zeros((self.nstates+1, self.nsigs))
		self.W = np.zeros((self.nsigs+1, self.ncontrols))
		self.y = np.zeros(self.ncontrols)

		self.saturated = False
		self.learn = False

######################## 

Example 30

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 

Example 31

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        # Tests new ufuncs on MaskedArrays.
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  # 'nonzero', 'around',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  # 'sometrue', 'alltrue',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor',
                  ]:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(numpy.ma.core, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            ur = uf(*args)
            mr = mf(*args)
            assert_equal(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f)
            assert_mask_equal(ur.mask, mr.mask, err_msg=f) 

Example 32

def test_testUfuncs1(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf, s) = self.d
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cos(x), cos(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sin(x), sin(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tan(x), tan(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm)))
        with np.errstate(divide='ignore', invalid='ignore'):
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.exp(x), exp(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, ym))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((x, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y, x)), concatenate((x, ym, x)))) 

Example 33

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        f_invalid_ignore = [
            'sqrt', 'arctanh', 'arcsin', 'arccos',
            'arccosh', 'arctanh', 'log', 'log10', 'divide',
            'true_divide', 'floor_divide', 'remainder', 'fmod']
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  # 'nonzero', 'around',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  # 'sometrue', 'alltrue',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor']:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(np.ma, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            with np.errstate():
                if f in f_invalid_ignore:
                    np.seterr(invalid='ignore')
                if f in ['arctanh', 'log', 'log10']:
                    np.seterr(divide='ignore')
                ur = uf(*args)
                mr = mf(*args)
            self.assertTrue(eq(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f))
            self.assertTrue(eqmask(ur.mask, mr.mask)) 

Example 34

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 

Example 35

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        # Tests new ufuncs on MaskedArrays.
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  # 'nonzero', 'around',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  # 'sometrue', 'alltrue',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor',
                  ]:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(numpy.ma.core, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            ur = uf(*args)
            mr = mf(*args)
            assert_equal(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f)
            assert_mask_equal(ur.mask, mr.mask, err_msg=f) 

Example 36

def test_testUfuncs1(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf, s) = self.d
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cos(x), cos(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sin(x), sin(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tan(x), tan(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm)))
        with np.errstate(divide='ignore', invalid='ignore'):
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.exp(x), exp(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, ym))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((x, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y, x)), concatenate((x, ym, x)))) 

Example 37

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        f_invalid_ignore = [
            'sqrt', 'arctanh', 'arcsin', 'arccos',
            'arccosh', 'arctanh', 'log', 'log10', 'divide',
            'true_divide', 'floor_divide', 'remainder', 'fmod']
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  # 'nonzero', 'around',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  # 'sometrue', 'alltrue',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor']:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(np.ma, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            with np.errstate():
                if f in f_invalid_ignore:
                    np.seterr(invalid='ignore')
                if f in ['arctanh', 'log', 'log10']:
                    np.seterr(divide='ignore')
                ur = uf(*args)
                mr = mf(*args)
            self.assertTrue(eq(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f))
            self.assertTrue(eqmask(ur.mask, mr.mask)) 

Example 38

def cosh(self):
        out = copy.copy(self)
        out.surface = np.cosh(out.surface)
        return out 

Example 39

def jac_scalar_scalar(self, x):
        return np.cosh(x) 

Example 40

def _f1(self, z):
        """
        Calculate function f1 from Hellstrom (1991)
        """
        f1 = np.exp(self._beta*z)*(np.cosh(self._gamma*z)
                                   - self._delta*np.sinh(self._gamma*z))
        return f1 

Example 41

def _f3(self, z):
        """
        Calculate function f3 from Hellstrom (1991)
        """
        f3 = np.exp(self._beta*z)*(np.cosh(self._gamma*z)
                                   + self._delta*np.sinh(self._gamma*z))
        return f3 

Example 42

def _f4(self, z):
        """
        Calculate function f4 from Hellstrom (1991)
        """
        A = self._delta*self._beta1 + self._beta2*self._beta12/self._gamma
        f4 = np.exp(self._beta*z) \
            * (self._beta1*np.cosh(self._gamma*z) - A*np.sinh(self._gamma*z))
        return f4 

Example 43

def _f5(self, z):
        """
        Calculate function f5 from Hellstrom (1991)
        """
        B = self._delta*self._beta2 + self._beta1*self._beta12/self._gamma
        f5 = np.exp(self._beta*z) \
            * (self._beta2*np.cosh(self._gamma*z) + B*np.sinh(self._gamma*z))
        return f5 

Example 44

def _F4(self, z):
        """
        Calculate integral of function f4 from Hellstrom (1991)
        """
        A = self._delta*self._beta1 + self._beta2*self._beta12/self._gamma
        C = self._beta1*self._beta + A*self._gamma
        S = - (self._beta1*self._gamma + self._beta*A)
        denom = (self._beta**2 - self._gamma**2)
        F4 = np.exp(self._beta*z) / denom \
            * (C*np.cosh(self._gamma*z) + S*np.sinh(self._gamma*z))
        return F4 

Example 45

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 

Example 46

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        # Tests new ufuncs on MaskedArrays.
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor',
                  ]:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(numpy.ma.core, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            ur = uf(*args)
            mr = mf(*args)
            assert_equal(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f)
            assert_mask_equal(ur.mask, mr.mask, err_msg=f) 

Example 47

def test_testUfuncs1(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf, s) = self.d
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cos(x), cos(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sin(x), sin(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tan(x), tan(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm)))
        with np.errstate(divide='ignore', invalid='ignore'):
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm)))
            self.assertTrue(eq(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.exp(x), exp(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, ym))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((x, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y)), concatenate((xm, y))))
        self.assertTrue(eq(np.concatenate((x, y, x)), concatenate((x, ym, x)))) 

Example 48

def test_testUfuncRegression(self):
        f_invalid_ignore = [
            'sqrt', 'arctanh', 'arcsin', 'arccos',
            'arccosh', 'arctanh', 'log', 'log10', 'divide',
            'true_divide', 'floor_divide', 'remainder', 'fmod']
        for f in ['sqrt', 'log', 'log10', 'exp', 'conjugate',
                  'sin', 'cos', 'tan',
                  'arcsin', 'arccos', 'arctan',
                  'sinh', 'cosh', 'tanh',
                  'arcsinh',
                  'arccosh',
                  'arctanh',
                  'absolute', 'fabs', 'negative',
                  'floor', 'ceil',
                  'logical_not',
                  'add', 'subtract', 'multiply',
                  'divide', 'true_divide', 'floor_divide',
                  'remainder', 'fmod', 'hypot', 'arctan2',
                  'equal', 'not_equal', 'less_equal', 'greater_equal',
                  'less', 'greater',
                  'logical_and', 'logical_or', 'logical_xor']:
            try:
                uf = getattr(umath, f)
            except AttributeError:
                uf = getattr(fromnumeric, f)
            mf = getattr(np.ma, f)
            args = self.d[:uf.nin]
            with np.errstate():
                if f in f_invalid_ignore:
                    np.seterr(invalid='ignore')
                if f in ['arctanh', 'log', 'log10']:
                    np.seterr(divide='ignore')
                ur = uf(*args)
                mr = mf(*args)
            self.assertTrue(eq(ur.filled(0), mr.filled(0), f))
            self.assertTrue(eqmask(ur.mask, mr.mask)) 

Example 49

def tot_mom(jet_csts):
    """Jet momentum calculated from constituent 4-vectors."""
    E_tot  = np.sum(jet_csts['ET'] * np.cosh(jet_csts['eta']))
    px_tot = np.sum(jet_csts['ET'] * np.cos(jet_csts['phi']))
    py_tot = np.sum(jet_csts['ET'] * np.sin(jet_csts['phi']))
    pz_tot = np.sum(jet_csts['ET'] * np.sinh(jet_csts['eta']))
    return E_tot, px_tot, py_tot, pz_tot 

Example 50

def test_basic_ufuncs(self):
        # Test various functions such as sin, cos.
        (x, y, a10, m1, m2, xm, ym, z, zm, xf) = self.d
        assert_equal(np.cos(x), cos(xm))
        assert_equal(np.cosh(x), cosh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sin(x), sin(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sinh(x), sinh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tan(x), tan(xm))
        assert_equal(np.tanh(x), tanh(xm))
        assert_equal(np.sqrt(abs(x)), sqrt(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log(abs(x)), log(xm))
        assert_equal(np.log10(abs(x)), log10(xm))
        assert_equal(np.exp(x), exp(xm))
        assert_equal(np.arcsin(z), arcsin(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arccos(z), arccos(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan(z), arctan(zm))
        assert_equal(np.arctan2(x, y), arctan2(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.absolute(x), absolute(xm))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y), angle(xm + 1j*ym))
        assert_equal(np.angle(x + 1j*y, deg=True), angle(xm + 1j*ym, deg=True))
        assert_equal(np.equal(x, y), equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.not_equal(x, y), not_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less(x, y), less(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater(x, y), greater(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.less_equal(x, y), less_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.greater_equal(x, y), greater_equal(xm, ym))
        assert_equal(np.conjugate(x), conjugate(xm)) 
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