# Python numpy.typecodes() 使用实例

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Example 1

```def test_remainder_basic(self):
dt = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
if sg1 == -1 and dt1 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
if sg2 == -1 and dt2 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*71, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*19, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 2

```def test_float_remainder_exact(self):
# test that float results are exact for small integers. This also
# holds for the same integers scaled by powers of two.
nlst = list(range(-127, 0))
plst = list(range(1, 128))
dividend = nlst + [0] + plst
divisor = nlst + plst
arg = list(itertools.product(dividend, divisor))
tgt = list(divmod(*t) for t in arg)

a, b = np.array(arg, dtype=int).T
# convert exact integer results from Python to float so that
# signed zero can be used, it is checked.
tgtdiv, tgtrem = np.array(tgt, dtype=float).T
tgtdiv = np.where((tgtdiv == 0.0) & ((b < 0) ^ (a < 0)), -0.0, tgtdiv)
tgtrem = np.where((tgtrem == 0.0) & (b < 0), -0.0, tgtrem)

for dt in np.typecodes['Float']:
msg = 'dtype: %s' % (dt,)
fa = a.astype(dt)
fb = b.astype(dt)
div = np.floor_divide(fa, fb)
rem = np.remainder(fa, fb)
assert_equal(div, tgtdiv, err_msg=msg)
assert_equal(rem, tgtrem, err_msg=msg) ```

Example 3

```def test_float_remainder_roundoff(self):
# gh-6127
dt = np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*78*6e-8, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*6e-8, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
# Equal assertion should hold when fmod is used
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 4

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.maximum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 5

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.minimum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 6

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmax.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 9)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 9) ```

Example 7

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmin.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 1)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 1) ```

Example 8

```def test_truth_table_logical(self):
# 2, 3 and 4 serves as true values
input1 = [0, 0, 3, 2]
input2 = [0, 4, 0, 2]

typecodes = (np.typecodes['AllFloat']
+ np.typecodes['AllInteger']
+ '?')     # boolean
for dtype in map(np.dtype, typecodes):
arg1 = np.asarray(input1, dtype=dtype)
arg2 = np.asarray(input2, dtype=dtype)

# OR
out = [False, True, True, True]
for func in (np.logical_or, np.maximum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# AND
out = [False, False, False, True]
for func in (np.logical_and, np.minimum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# XOR
out = [False, True, True, False]
for func in (np.logical_xor, np.not_equal):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out) ```

Example 9

```def test_zeros(self):
types = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat']
for dt in types:
d = np.zeros((13,), dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
# true for ieee floats
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='4i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4, (2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0) ```

Example 10

```def test_basic(self):
dt_numeric = np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']
dt_complex = np.typecodes['Complex']

# test real
a = np.eye(3)
for dt in dt_numeric + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test complex
a = np.eye(3) * 1j
for dt in dt_complex + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test boolean
b = np.eye(3, dtype=np.bool)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), True) ```

Example 11

```def test_inner_product_with_various_contiguities(self):
# github issue 6532
for dt in np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + '?':
# check an inner product involving a matrix transpose
A = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]], dtype=dt)
B = np.array([[1, 3], [2, 4]], dtype=dt)
C = np.array([1, 1], dtype=dt)
desired = np.array([4, 6], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A.T, C), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(C, A.T), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(B, C), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(C, B), desired)
# check a matrix product
desired = np.array([[7, 10], [15, 22]], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, B), desired)
# check the syrk vs. gemm paths
desired = np.array([[5, 11], [11, 25]], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, A), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, A.copy()), desired)
# check an inner product involving an aliased and reversed view
a = np.arange(5).astype(dt)
b = a[::-1]
desired = np.array(10, dtype=dt).item()
assert_equal(np.inner(b, a), desired) ```

Example 12

```def test_modulus_basic(self):
dt = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
if sg1 == -1 and dt1 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
if sg2 == -1 and dt2 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*71, dtype=dt1)[()]
b = np.array(sg2*19, dtype=dt2)[()]
div = self.floordiv(a, b)
rem = self.mod(a, b)
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 13

```def test_float_modulus_roundoff(self):
# gh-6127
dt = np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*78*6e-8, dtype=dt1)[()]
b = np.array(sg2*6e-8, dtype=dt2)[()]
div = self.floordiv(a, b)
rem = self.mod(a, b)
# Equal assertion should hold when fmod is used
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 14

```def test_tril_triu_ndim3():
for dtype in np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']:
a = np.array([
[[1, 1], [1, 1]],
[[1, 1], [1, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_tril_desired = np.array([
[[1, 0], [1, 1]],
[[1, 0], [1, 0]],
[[1, 0], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_desired = np.array([
[[1, 1], [0, 1]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_observed = np.triu(a)
a_tril_observed = np.tril(a)
yield assert_array_equal, a_triu_observed, a_triu_desired
yield assert_array_equal, a_tril_observed, a_tril_desired
yield assert_equal, a_triu_observed.dtype, a.dtype
yield assert_equal, a_tril_observed.dtype, a.dtype ```

Example 15

```def test_tril_triu_dtype():
# Issue 4916
# tril and triu should return the same dtype as input
for c in np.typecodes['All']:
if c == 'V':
continue
arr = np.zeros((3, 3), dtype=c)
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

# check special cases
arr = np.array([['2001-01-01T12:00', '2002-02-03T13:56'],
['2004-01-01T12:00', '2003-01-03T13:45']],
dtype='datetime64')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

arr = np.zeros((3,3), dtype='f4,f4')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype) ```

Example 16

```def test_remainder_basic(self):
dt = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
if sg1 == -1 and dt1 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
if sg2 == -1 and dt2 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*71, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*19, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 17

```def test_float_remainder_exact(self):
# test that float results are exact for small integers. This also
# holds for the same integers scaled by powers of two.
nlst = list(range(-127, 0))
plst = list(range(1, 128))
dividend = nlst + [0] + plst
divisor = nlst + plst
arg = list(itertools.product(dividend, divisor))
tgt = list(divmod(*t) for t in arg)

a, b = np.array(arg, dtype=int).T
# convert exact integer results from Python to float so that
# signed zero can be used, it is checked.
tgtdiv, tgtrem = np.array(tgt, dtype=float).T
tgtdiv = np.where((tgtdiv == 0.0) & ((b < 0) ^ (a < 0)), -0.0, tgtdiv)
tgtrem = np.where((tgtrem == 0.0) & (b < 0), -0.0, tgtrem)

for dt in np.typecodes['Float']:
msg = 'dtype: %s' % (dt,)
fa = a.astype(dt)
fb = b.astype(dt)
div = np.floor_divide(fa, fb)
rem = np.remainder(fa, fb)
assert_equal(div, tgtdiv, err_msg=msg)
assert_equal(rem, tgtrem, err_msg=msg) ```

Example 18

```def test_float_remainder_roundoff(self):
# gh-6127
dt = np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*78*6e-8, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*6e-8, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
# Equal assertion should hold when fmod is used
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 19

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.maximum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 20

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.minimum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 21

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmax.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 9)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 9) ```

Example 22

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmin.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 1)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 1) ```

Example 23

```def test_truth_table_logical(self):
# 2, 3 and 4 serves as true values
input1 = [0, 0, 3, 2]
input2 = [0, 4, 0, 2]

typecodes = (np.typecodes['AllFloat']
+ np.typecodes['AllInteger']
+ '?')     # boolean
for dtype in map(np.dtype, typecodes):
arg1 = np.asarray(input1, dtype=dtype)
arg2 = np.asarray(input2, dtype=dtype)

# OR
out = [False, True, True, True]
for func in (np.logical_or, np.maximum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# AND
out = [False, False, False, True]
for func in (np.logical_and, np.minimum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# XOR
out = [False, True, True, False]
for func in (np.logical_xor, np.not_equal):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out) ```

Example 24

```def test_zeros(self):
types = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat']
for dt in types:
d = np.zeros((13,), dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
# true for ieee floats
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='4i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4, (2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0) ```

Example 25

```def test_basic(self):
dt_numeric = np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']
dt_complex = np.typecodes['Complex']

# test real
a = np.eye(3)
for dt in dt_numeric + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test complex
a = np.eye(3) * 1j
for dt in dt_complex + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test boolean
b = np.eye(3, dtype=np.bool)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), True) ```

Example 26

```def test_inner_product_with_various_contiguities(self):
# github issue 6532
for dt in np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + '?':
# check an inner product involving a matrix transpose
A = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]], dtype=dt)
B = np.array([[1, 3], [2, 4]], dtype=dt)
C = np.array([1, 1], dtype=dt)
desired = np.array([4, 6], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A.T, C), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(C, A.T), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(B, C), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(C, B), desired)
# check a matrix product
desired = np.array([[7, 10], [15, 22]], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, B), desired)
# check the syrk vs. gemm paths
desired = np.array([[5, 11], [11, 25]], dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, A), desired)
assert_equal(np.inner(A, A.copy()), desired)
# check an inner product involving an aliased and reversed view
a = np.arange(5).astype(dt)
b = a[::-1]
desired = np.array(10, dtype=dt).item()
assert_equal(np.inner(b, a), desired) ```

Example 27

```def test_modulus_basic(self):
dt = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
if sg1 == -1 and dt1 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
if sg2 == -1 and dt2 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*71, dtype=dt1)[()]
b = np.array(sg2*19, dtype=dt2)[()]
div = self.floordiv(a, b)
rem = self.mod(a, b)
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 28

```def test_float_modulus_roundoff(self):
# gh-6127
dt = np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*78*6e-8, dtype=dt1)[()]
b = np.array(sg2*6e-8, dtype=dt2)[()]
div = self.floordiv(a, b)
rem = self.mod(a, b)
# Equal assertion should hold when fmod is used
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 29

```def test_tril_triu_ndim3():
for dtype in np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']:
a = np.array([
[[1, 1], [1, 1]],
[[1, 1], [1, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_tril_desired = np.array([
[[1, 0], [1, 1]],
[[1, 0], [1, 0]],
[[1, 0], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_desired = np.array([
[[1, 1], [0, 1]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_observed = np.triu(a)
a_tril_observed = np.tril(a)
yield assert_array_equal, a_triu_observed, a_triu_desired
yield assert_array_equal, a_tril_observed, a_tril_desired
yield assert_equal, a_triu_observed.dtype, a.dtype
yield assert_equal, a_tril_observed.dtype, a.dtype ```

Example 30

```def test_tril_triu_dtype():
# Issue 4916
# tril and triu should return the same dtype as input
for c in np.typecodes['All']:
if c == 'V':
continue
arr = np.zeros((3, 3), dtype=c)
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

# check special cases
arr = np.array([['2001-01-01T12:00', '2002-02-03T13:56'],
['2004-01-01T12:00', '2003-01-03T13:45']],
dtype='datetime64')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

arr = np.zeros((3,3), dtype='f4,f4')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype) ```

Example 31

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.maximum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 32

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.minimum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 33

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmin.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 1)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 1) ```

Example 34

```def test_truth_table_logical(self):
# 2, 3 and 4 serves as true values
input1 = [0, 0, 3, 2]
input2 = [0, 4, 0, 2]

typecodes = (np.typecodes['AllFloat']
+ np.typecodes['AllInteger']
+ '?')     # boolean
for dtype in map(np.dtype, typecodes):
arg1 = np.asarray(input1, dtype=dtype)
arg2 = np.asarray(input2, dtype=dtype)

# OR
out = [False, True, True, True]
for func in (np.logical_or, np.maximum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# AND
out = [False, False, False, True]
for func in (np.logical_and, np.minimum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# XOR
out = [False, True, True, False]
for func in (np.logical_xor, np.not_equal):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out) ```

Example 35

```def test_zeros(self):
types = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat']
for dt in types:
d = np.zeros((13,), dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
# true for ieee floats
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='4i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4, (2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0) ```

Example 36

```def test_basic(self):
dt_numeric = np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']
dt_complex = np.typecodes['Complex']

# test real
a = np.eye(3)
for dt in dt_numeric + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test complex
a = np.eye(3) * 1j
for dt in dt_complex + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test boolean
b = np.eye(3, dtype=np.bool)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), True) ```

Example 37

```def _check_all_finite(X):
"""General check for all finite values in X."""
# First try an O(n) time, O(1) space solution for the common case that
# everything is finite; fall back to O(n) space np.isfinite to prevent
# false positives from overflow in sum method.
try:
if (X.dtype.char in np.typecodes['AllFloat'] and not
np.isfinite(X.sum()) and not np.isfinite(X).all()):
return False
else:
return True

except Exception as e:
warnings.warn('Could not check array for all finite. Ensure X is an'
'array type, and consider converting to an ndarray or'
'scipy sparse array. Details:\n%r' % e, InputDataWarning) ```

Example 38

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.maximum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 39

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.minimum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 40

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.fmax.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 9)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 9) ```

Example 41

```def test_truth_table_logical(self):
# 2, 3 and 4 serves as true values
input1 = [0, 0, 3, 2]
input2 = [0, 4, 0, 2]

typecodes = (np.typecodes['AllFloat']
+ np.typecodes['AllInteger']
+ '?')     # boolean
for dtype in map(np.dtype, typecodes):
arg1 = np.asarray(input1, dtype=dtype)
arg2 = np.asarray(input2, dtype=dtype)

# OR
out = [False, True, True, True]
for func in (np.logical_or, np.maximum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# AND
out = [False, False, False, True]
for func in (np.logical_and, np.minimum):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out)
# XOR
out = [False, True, True, False]
for func in (np.logical_xor, np.not_equal):
assert_equal(func(arg1, arg2).astype(bool), out) ```

Example 42

```def test_zeros(self):
types = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['AllFloat']
for dt in types:
d = np.zeros((13,), dtype=dt)
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
# true for ieee floats
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='4i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0)
assert_equal(d.sum(), 0)
assert_(not d.any())

d = np.zeros(2, dtype='(2,4)i4, (2,4)i4')
assert_equal(np.count_nonzero(d), 0) ```

Example 43

```def test_basic(self):
dt_numeric = np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']
dt_complex = np.typecodes['Complex']

# test real
a = np.eye(3)
for dt in dt_numeric + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test complex
a = np.eye(3) * 1j
for dt in dt_complex + 'O':
b = a.astype(dt)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), 3)

# test boolean
b = np.eye(3, dtype=np.bool)
res = np.vdot(b, b)
assert_(np.isscalar(res))
assert_equal(np.vdot(b, b), True) ```

Example 44

```def test_tril_triu_ndim3():
for dtype in np.typecodes['AllFloat'] + np.typecodes['AllInteger']:
a = np.array([
[[1, 1], [1, 1]],
[[1, 1], [1, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_tril_desired = np.array([
[[1, 0], [1, 1]],
[[1, 0], [1, 0]],
[[1, 0], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_desired = np.array([
[[1, 1], [0, 1]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
[[1, 1], [0, 0]],
], dtype=dtype)
a_triu_observed = np.triu(a)
a_tril_observed = np.tril(a)
yield assert_array_equal, a_triu_observed, a_triu_desired
yield assert_array_equal, a_tril_observed, a_tril_desired
yield assert_equal, a_triu_observed.dtype, a.dtype
yield assert_equal, a_tril_observed.dtype, a.dtype ```

Example 45

```def test_tril_triu_dtype():
# Issue 4916
# tril and triu should return the same dtype as input
for c in np.typecodes['All']:
if c == 'V':
continue
arr = np.zeros((3, 3), dtype=c)
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

# check special cases
arr = np.array([['2001-01-01T12:00', '2002-02-03T13:56'],
['2004-01-01T12:00', '2003-01-03T13:45']],
dtype='datetime64')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)

arr = np.zeros((3,3), dtype='f4,f4')
assert_equal(np.triu(arr).dtype, arr.dtype)
assert_equal(np.tril(arr).dtype, arr.dtype) ```

Example 46

```def test_remainder_basic(self):
dt = np.typecodes['AllInteger'] + np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
if sg1 == -1 and dt1 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
if sg2 == -1 and dt2 in np.typecodes['UnsignedInteger']:
continue
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*71, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*19, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 47

```def test_float_remainder_exact(self):
# test that float results are exact for small integers. This also
# holds for the same integers scaled by powers of two.
nlst = list(range(-127, 0))
plst = list(range(1, 128))
dividend = nlst + [0] + plst
divisor = nlst + plst
arg = list(itertools.product(dividend, divisor))
tgt = list(divmod(*t) for t in arg)

a, b = np.array(arg, dtype=int).T
# convert exact integer results from Python to float so that
# signed zero can be used, it is checked.
tgtdiv, tgtrem = np.array(tgt, dtype=float).T
tgtdiv = np.where((tgtdiv == 0.0) & ((b < 0) ^ (a < 0)), -0.0, tgtdiv)
tgtrem = np.where((tgtrem == 0.0) & (b < 0), -0.0, tgtrem)

for dt in np.typecodes['Float']:
msg = 'dtype: %s' % (dt,)
fa = a.astype(dt)
fb = b.astype(dt)
div = np.floor_divide(fa, fb)
rem = np.remainder(fa, fb)
assert_equal(div, tgtdiv, err_msg=msg)
assert_equal(rem, tgtrem, err_msg=msg) ```

Example 48

```def test_float_remainder_roundoff(self):
# gh-6127
dt = np.typecodes['Float']
for dt1, dt2 in itertools.product(dt, dt):
for sg1, sg2 in itertools.product((+1, -1), (+1, -1)):
fmt = 'dt1: %s, dt2: %s, sg1: %s, sg2: %s'
msg = fmt % (dt1, dt2, sg1, sg2)
a = np.array(sg1*78*6e-8, dtype=dt1)
b = np.array(sg2*6e-8, dtype=dt2)
div = np.floor_divide(a, b)
rem = np.remainder(a, b)
# Equal assertion should hold when fmod is used
assert_equal(div*b + rem, a, err_msg=msg)
if sg2 == -1:
assert_(b < rem <= 0, msg)
else:
assert_(b > rem >= 0, msg) ```

Example 49

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.maximum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 10)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 10)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```

Example 50

```def test_reduce(self):
dflt = np.typecodes['AllFloat']
dint = np.typecodes['AllInteger']
seq1 = np.arange(11)
seq2 = seq1[::-1]
func = np.minimum.reduce
for dt in dint:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
for dt in dflt:
tmp1 = seq1.astype(dt)
tmp2 = seq2.astype(dt)
assert_equal(func(tmp1), 0)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), 0)
tmp1[::2] = np.nan
tmp2[::2] = np.nan
assert_equal(func(tmp1), np.nan)
assert_equal(func(tmp2), np.nan) ```