# Python numpy.longdouble() 使用实例

The following are code examples for showing how to use . They are extracted from open source Python projects. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the exmaples you don’t like. You can also save this page to your account.

Example 1

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 2

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 3

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 4

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 5

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 6

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 7

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 8

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 9

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 10

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 11

```def test_basic(self):
dts = [np.bool, np.int16, np.int32, np.int64, np.double, np.complex128,
np.longdouble, np.clongdouble]
for dt in dts:
c = np.ones(53, dtype=np.bool)
assert_equal(np.where( c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(~c, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
assert_equal(np.where(True, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(0))
assert_equal(np.where(False, dt(0), dt(1)), dt(1))
d = np.ones_like(c).astype(dt)
e = np.zeros_like(d)
r = d.astype(dt)
c[7] = False
r[7] = e[7]
assert_equal(np.where(c, e, e), e)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d, e[0]), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c, d[0], e), r)
assert_equal(np.where(c[::2], d[::2], e[::2]), r[::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::2], d[1::2], e[1::2]), r[1::2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::3], d[::3], e[::3]), r[::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::3], d[1::3], e[1::3]), r[1::3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-2], d[::-2], e[::-2]), r[::-2])
assert_equal(np.where(c[::-3], d[::-3], e[::-3]), r[::-3])
assert_equal(np.where(c[1::-3], d[1::-3], e[1::-3]), r[1::-3]) ```

Example 12

```def test_sum(self):
for dt in (np.int, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble):
for v in (0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 127,
128, 1024, 1235):
tgt = dt(v * (v + 1) / 2)
d = np.arange(1, v + 1, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d), tgt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-1]), tgt)

d = np.ones(500, dtype=dt)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[1::3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-2]), 250.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[::-3]), 167.)
assert_almost_equal(np.sum(d[-1::-3]), 167.)
# sum with first reduction entry != 0
d = np.ones((1,), dtype=dt)
d += d
assert_almost_equal(d, 2.) ```

Example 13

```def test_floats_from_string(self, level=rlevel):
# Ticket #640, floats from string
fsingle = np.single('1.234')
fdouble = np.double('1.234')
flongdouble = np.longdouble('1.234')
assert_almost_equal(fsingle, 1.234)
assert_almost_equal(fdouble, 1.234)
assert_almost_equal(flongdouble, 1.234) ```

Example 14

```def _check_ldexp(self, tp):
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.float32),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.)
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.float64),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.)
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.longdouble),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.) ```

Example 15

```def test_nextafterl():
return _test_nextafter(np.longdouble) ```

Example 16

```def test_spacingl():
return _test_spacing(np.longdouble) ```

Example 17

```def test_nan_inf_float():
""" Check formatting of nan & inf.

This is only for the str function, and only for simple types.
The precision of np.float and np.longdouble aren't the same as the
python float precision.

"""
for t in [np.float32, np.double, np.longdouble]:
yield check_nan_inf_float, t ```

Example 18

```def test_complex_types():
"""Check formatting of complex types.

This is only for the str function, and only for simple types.
The precision of np.float and np.longdouble aren't the same as the
python float precision.

"""
for t in [np.complex64, np.cdouble, np.clongdouble]:
yield check_complex_type, t ```

Example 19

```def test_float_type_print():
"""Check formatting when using print """
for t in [np.float32, np.double, np.longdouble]:
yield check_float_type_print, t ```

Example 20

```def test_scalar_format():
"""Test the str.format method with NumPy scalar types"""
tests = [('{0}', True, np.bool_),
('{0}', False, np.bool_),
('{0:d}', 130, np.uint8),
('{0:d}', 50000, np.uint16),
('{0:d}', 3000000000, np.uint32),
('{0:d}', 15000000000000000000, np.uint64),
('{0:d}', -120, np.int8),
('{0:d}', -30000, np.int16),
('{0:d}', -2000000000, np.int32),
('{0:d}', -7000000000000000000, np.int64),
('{0:g}', 1.5, np.float16),
('{0:g}', 1.5, np.float32),
('{0:g}', 1.5, np.float64),
('{0:g}', 1.5, np.longdouble)]
# Python 2.6 doesn't implement complex.__format__
if sys.version_info[:2] > (2, 6):
tests += [('{0:g}', 1.5+0.5j, np.complex64),
('{0:g}', 1.5+0.5j, np.complex128),
('{0:g}', 1.5+0.5j, np.clongdouble)]

for (fmat, val, valtype) in tests:
try:
assert_equal(fmat.format(val), fmat.format(valtype(val)),
"failed with val %s, type %s" % (val, valtype))
except ValueError as e:
assert_(False,
"format raised exception (fmt='%s', val=%s, type=%s, exc='%s')" %
(fmat, repr(val), repr(valtype), str(e)))

# Locale tests: scalar types formatting should be independent of the locale ```

Example 21

```def test_locale_longdouble():
assert_equal(str(np.longdouble(1.2)), str(float(1.2))) ```

Example 22

```def test_export_record(self):
dt = [('a', 'b'),
('b', 'h'),
('c', 'i'),
('d', 'l'),
('dx', 'q'),
('e', 'B'),
('f', 'H'),
('g', 'I'),
('h', 'L'),
('hx', 'Q'),
('i', np.single),
('j', np.double),
('k', np.longdouble),
('ix', np.csingle),
('jx', np.cdouble),
('kx', np.clongdouble),
('l', 'S4'),
('m', 'U4'),
('n', 'V3'),
('o', '?'),
('p', np.half),
]
x = np.array(
[(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
asbytes('aaaa'), 'bbbb', asbytes('   '), True, 1.0)],
dtype=dt)
y = memoryview(x)
assert_equal(y.shape, (1,))
assert_equal(y.ndim, 1)
assert_equal(y.suboffsets, EMPTY)

sz = sum([np.dtype(b).itemsize for a, b in dt])
if np.dtype('l').itemsize == 4:
assert_equal(y.format, 'T{b:a:=h:b:i:c:l:d:q:dx:B:e:@H:f:=I:g:L:h:Q:hx:f:i:d:j:^g:k:=Zf:ix:Zd:jx:^Zg:kx:4s:l:=4w:m:3x:n:?:o:@e:p:}')
else:
assert_equal(y.format, 'T{b:a:=h:b:i:c:q:d:q:dx:B:e:@H:f:=I:g:Q:h:Q:hx:f:i:d:j:^g:k:=Zf:ix:Zd:jx:^Zg:kx:4s:l:=4w:m:3x:n:?:o:@e:p:}')
# Cannot test if NPY_RELAXED_STRIDES_CHECKING changes the strides
if not (np.ones(1).strides[0] == np.iinfo(np.intp).max):
assert_equal(y.strides, (sz,))
assert_equal(y.itemsize, sz) ```

Example 23

```def test_einsum_sums_longdouble(self):
self.check_einsum_sums(np.longdouble) ```

Example 24

```def test_singleton(self,level=2):
ftype = finfo(longdouble)
ftype2 = finfo(longdouble)
assert_equal(id(ftype), id(ftype2)) ```

Example 25

```def test_str(self):
svals = [0.0, -0.0, 1, -1, np.inf, -np.inf, np.nan]
styps = [np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble]
actual = [str(f(c)) for c in svals for f in styps]
wanted = [
'0.0',  '0.0',  '0.0',  '0.0',
'-0.0', '-0.0', '-0.0', '-0.0',
'1.0',  '1.0',  '1.0',  '1.0',
'-1.0', '-1.0', '-1.0', '-1.0',
'inf',  'inf',  'inf',  'inf',
'-inf', '-inf', '-inf', '-inf',
'nan',  'nan',  'nan',  'nan']

for res, val in zip(actual, wanted):
assert_(res == val) ```

Example 26

```def test_large_types(self):
for t in [np.int32, np.int64, np.float32, np.float64, np.longdouble]:
a = t(51)
b = a ** 4
msg = "error with %r: got %r" % (t, b)
if np.issubdtype(t, np.integer):
assert_(b == 6765201, msg)
else:
assert_almost_equal(b, 6765201, err_msg=msg) ```

Example 27

```def test_longdouble_int(self):
# gh-627
x = np.longdouble(np.inf)
assert_raises(OverflowError, x.__int__)
x = np.clongdouble(np.inf)
assert_raises(OverflowError, x.__int__) ```

Example 28

```def test_scalar_extraction():
"""Confirm that extracting a value doesn't convert to python float"""
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
a = np.array([o, o, o])
assert_equal(a[1], o)

# Conversions string -> long double ```

Example 29

```def test_repr_roundtrip():
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
assert_equal(np.longdouble(repr(o)), o,
"repr was %s" % repr(o)) ```

Example 30

```def test_string():
np.longdouble("1.2") ```

Example 31

```def test_bytes():
np.longdouble(b"1.2") ```

Example 32

```def test_repr_roundtrip_bytes():
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
assert_equal(np.longdouble(repr(o).encode("ascii")), o) ```

Example 33

```def test_repr_roundtrip_foreign():
o = 1.5
assert_equal(o, np.longdouble(repr(o))) ```

Example 34

```def test_bogus_string():
assert_raises(ValueError, np.longdouble, "spam")
assert_raises(ValueError, np.longdouble, "1.0 flub") ```

Example 35

```def test_fromstring_best_effort():
assert_equal(np.fromstring("1,234", dtype=np.longdouble, sep=" "),
np.array([1.])) ```

Example 36

```def test_fromfile(self):
with temppath() as path:
with open(path, 'wt') as f:
f.write(self.out)
res = np.fromfile(path, dtype=np.longdouble, sep="\n")
assert_equal(res, self.tgt) ```

Example 37

```def test_genfromtxt(self):
with temppath() as path:
with open(path, 'wt') as f:
f.write(self.out)
res = np.genfromtxt(path, dtype=np.longdouble)
assert_equal(res, self.tgt) ```

Example 38

```def test_loadtxt(self):
with temppath() as path:
with open(path, 'wt') as f:
f.write(self.out)
assert_equal(res, self.tgt) ```

Example 39

```def test_tofile_roundtrip(self):
with temppath() as path:
self.tgt.tofile(path, sep=" ")
res = np.fromfile(path, dtype=np.longdouble, sep=" ")
assert_equal(res, self.tgt) ```

Example 40

```def test_fromstring_foreign_sep():
a = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4])
b = np.fromstring("1,2,3,4,", dtype=np.longdouble, sep=",")
assert_array_equal(a, b) ```

Example 41

```def test_fromstring_foreign_value():
b = np.fromstring("1,234", dtype=np.longdouble, sep=" ")
assert_array_equal(b[0], 1)

# Conversions long double -> string ```

Example 42

```def test_repr_exact():
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
assert_(repr(o) != '1') ```

Example 43

```def test_format():
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
assert_("{0:.40g}".format(o) != '1') ```

Example 44

```def test_percent():
o = 1 + np.finfo(np.longdouble).eps
assert_("%.40g" % o != '1') ```

Example 45

```def _getconv(dtype):
""" Find the correct dtype converter. Adapted from matplotlib """

def floatconv(x):
x.lower()
if b'0x' in x:
return float.fromhex(asstr(x))
return float(x)

typ = dtype.type
if issubclass(typ, np.bool_):
return lambda x: bool(int(x))
if issubclass(typ, np.uint64):
return np.uint64
if issubclass(typ, np.int64):
return np.int64
if issubclass(typ, np.integer):
return lambda x: int(float(x))
elif issubclass(typ, np.longdouble):
return np.longdouble
elif issubclass(typ, np.floating):
return floatconv
elif issubclass(typ, np.complex):
return lambda x: complex(asstr(x))
elif issubclass(typ, np.bytes_):
return bytes
else:
return str ```

Example 46

```def test_longdouble_norm(self):
# Non-regression test: p-norm of longdouble would previously raise
# UnboundLocalError.
x = np.arange(10, dtype=np.longdouble)
old_assert_almost_equal(norm(x, ord=3), 12.65, decimal=2) ```

Example 47

```def get_samples_per_second(self):
"""Return the sample rate in Hz as a numpy.longdouble."""
return self._samples_per_second ```

Example 48

```def get_samples_per_second(self):
"""Return the sample rate in Hz as a numpy.longdouble."""
return self._samples_per_second ```

Example 49

```def test_floats_from_string(self, level=rlevel):
# Ticket #640, floats from string
fsingle = np.single('1.234')
fdouble = np.double('1.234')
flongdouble = np.longdouble('1.234')
assert_almost_equal(fsingle, 1.234)
assert_almost_equal(fdouble, 1.234)
assert_almost_equal(flongdouble, 1.234) ```

Example 50

```def _check_ldexp(self, tp):
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.float32),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.)
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.float64),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.)
assert_almost_equal(ncu.ldexp(np.array(2., np.longdouble),
np.array(3, tp)), 16.) ```